Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial Joints

Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial Joints
1. Use key responses to identify the joint types described below.
a. cartilaginous
b. fibrous
c. synovial
1. fibers connecting the tibia and fibula
2. includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis
3. found in the epiphyseal plate
4. sutures are memorable examples
5. characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions
6. all characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity
7. all are freely movable or diarthrotic
8. bone regions united by dense regular connective tissue
9. include the hip, knee, and elbow joints
2. Describe the tissue type and function of the following structures in relation to a synovial joint, and label the structures indicated by leader lines in the diagram. Use an appropriate reference if needed.
tendon :
articular cartilage:
synovial membrane:

3. Match the synovial joint categories in column B with their descriptions in column A. Some terms may be used more than once.

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Column A

joint between the axis and atlas
2. hip joint
3. intervertebral joints (between articular processes)
4. joint between forearm bones and wrist
5. elbow
6. interphalangeal joints
7. intercarpal joints
8. joint between talus and tibia/fibula
9. joint between skull and vertebral column
10. joint between jaw and skull
11. joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones
12. a multiaxial joint
13.biaxial joints
14.uniaxial joints
Column B
a. ball-and-socket
b. condylar
c. hinge
d. pivot
e. plane
f. saddle
4. Indicate the number of planes in which each joint can move.
uniaxial joints biaxial joints multiaxial joints
5. What characteristics do all joints have in common?
Selected Synovial Joints
6. Which joint, the hip or the knee, is more stable?
Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the hip joint.
Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee.
7. The diagram shows a frontal section of the hip joint. Identi%r its major structural elements by using the key letters.

a. acetabular labrum
b. articular capsule
c. articular cartilage
d. head of femur
e. hip bone
f. joint cavity
g. ligament of the head of the femur
8. The shoulder joint is built for mobility. List four factors that contribute to the large range of motion at the shoulder:



9. In which direction does the shoulder usually dislocate?
Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints
10. Which letter of the adjacent diagram marks the origin of the muscle? Which letter marks the insertion?
Insert the words origin and insertion into the following sentence:
During muscle contraction, the moves toward the

11. Complete the descriptions below the diagrams by inserting the type of movement in each
answer blank.

Of the upper limb of the lower limb
(g) Of the head
Joint Disorders
12. What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?
13. Define the following terms.

Of the upper limb

(h) Of the forearm

14. What types of tissue damage might you expect to find in a dislocated joint?

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