Argumentative essay on raising the federal minimum wage in the United States

English 1302 Essay 2/ Argue to Convince: Making a Case 25% of Final Grade In this essay, you will make a case that seeks to convince readers (college instructors and students) to accept your specific claim about an issue, that is, a question that has more than one answer. Imagine that your audience is not very well-informed about this issue nor particularly inclined to agree. Your essay’s introduction should have a clear, specific thesis that makes your claim about the issue. This thesis should be focused enough that you can prove it in a relatively short essay, which means you will probably need a fairly narrow issue. The body of your essay should provide reasons and evidence (logos appeal) to back up your claim. To provide evidence for your case, you need to do research. You must refer to at least six reputable secondary sources in your essay. In addition to presenting your perspective, be sure to address any prevailing counterarguments (especially if these are counterarguments that are likely to occur to or be compelling to your audience). Do not feel compelled to directly address a counterargument if your argument implicitly does so or the counterargument is not a valid claim (such as a conspiracy believed in by a fringe audience). This essay is a formal academic research paper that makes a well-reasoned argument; therefore, the quality of the writing and the effectiveness of the organization will impact your grade. Recommended Length: Approximately 1,300 words (not including Works Cited). This is roughly equivalent to four and a half pages (not including the Works Cited). Other Essay Requirements: • Use at least 6 reputable secondary sources • Follow MLA Format for ENGL 1302 • Follow MLA style for In-Text Citations • Follow MLA Style for Works Cited page. You should provide enough information that your reader has some grasp of basic key terms and/or concepts that you are using. The intro should make it clear why this issue matters and how it is relevant to your audience. o Most importantly, your intro should have a clear, specific thesis that makes your claim about the issue. This thesis should be focused enough that you can prove it in a relatively short essay, which means you will probably need a fairly narrow issue. This thesis must be a statement, not a question. You should qualify a thesis if there are important exceptions or limitations to it. • First Body Paragraph(s): If your issue is complicated and involves more information than can be provided in an introductory paragraph, use the first body paragraph(s) to acquaint your reader with this information, such as the history of a certain issue, technical and scientific terms • Subsequent Body Paragraphs (at least two): The remainder of the body of the essay will present the main reasons why your claim is valid. These reasons must be relevant to the claim and not contradict one another. o Each reason should have at least one paragraph to develop and prove it. You should have no more than one paragraph per reason, but you may have more than one paragraph for each reason. How many reasons you have depends on the claim. You may have only one, very strong reason. Most likely you will have at least two. o Each reason will most likely require evidence to back it up. For this essay, you will need to provide evidence from reputable secondary sources to back up your reasons. o Develop reasons in some logical order (causes and then effects, chronological or historical order, or problem and then solutions). If there is no natural, logical order, begin with either your strongest or next strongest reason. Then end with your next strongest or strongest reason (this is to have an impact on the reader). o If there is a prevailing counterargument, it may naturally come up as you present a particular reason. If not and if it is a significant one that is likely to weight on your reader’s mind, start with it; if it is less significant but worth addressing, save it for the end of the essay just before your conclusion. Either make a concession to the counterargument (indicate where it has merit, admit an exception, in which case you should qualify your thesis) or refute the counterargument to show why it is not valid. Always show respect towards counterarguments, but do not feel to compelled to address an invalid counterargument. • Conclusion: Avoid summarizing what you have just argued. Readers should be sufficiently convinced by your reasons not to need them. The conclusion should have an impact on your reader, so the use of pathos, or the appeal to emotion, is appropriate. Some options: o Book end technique-return to something you did in the introduction, such as a narrative that has an ending not yet revealed (pathos) o suggest a solution if your essay isn’t itself arguing for a solution, one that a “powerful entity” would need to implement o challenge readers to do or not do something (persuasion, uses pathos, hoping that they are sufficiently convinced by previous to want to act) o answer a minor objection that the other side might have (refutation)—if they think studying science is boring, show why it isn’t (may use pathos) o consider implications of claim (speculation/hypothetical), can create a story that leaves an impression but be careful to qualify/avoid slippery slope fallacy! (pathos appeal) o ask a rhetorical question (one you feel your audience will answer a certain way) o end with personal experience (ethos and pathos inducing)

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