Explain and Argument Paper

Essay 2 is a 5-7 page (typed and double-spaced) essay.

In this essay, you will explain and analyze the arguments of two contemporary philosophers, Peter Singer and Jan Narveson, who have opposing positions on the same issue. Singer, in the course handout “Peter Singer’s World Poverty Argument,” and Narveson, in the handout “Feeding the Hungry,” both address the following question: Do people with wealth that exceeds their essential needs have a moral obligation to help those in life-threatening poverty around the world?

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The essay needs an introduction paragraph that includes a thesis statement, and it needs a conclusion paragraph. The body of the essay should consist of the following:

1. Explain Peter Singer’s argument, being sure to address the following points:

· What is Singer’s conclusion concerning whether people with the ability to help have a moral obligation to help those in life-threatening poverty around the world?

· What reasons/premises does Singer give to support his conclusion?

· What is the example of the drowning child, and how does it illustrate Singer’s argument?

· What is the example of Bob and the Bugatti, and how does it illustrate Singer’s argument?

· How much are we obligated to give, according to Singer? What is Singer’s reasoning for why we are obligated to give that much?

· How does the fact that others are also in a position to help affect our own obligation to help, according to Singer? What is Singer’s reasoning for his view?

· What are the differences, according to Singer, between giving as a moral obligation versus giving as an act of charity? Why should we consider giving to international aid organizations that address extreme poverty to be a moral obligation rather than an act of charity?

2. Explain Jan Narveson’s argument, being sure to address the following points:

· What is Narveson’s conclusion concerning whether people with the ability to help have a moral obligation to help those in life-threatening poverty around the world?

· What are the differences between killing and letting die and between starving versus allowing to starve, and how do these distinctions support Narveson’s conclusion about whether giving to the world’s neediest is a moral obligation?

· To what extent, according to Narveson, should we be expected to help a stranger in time of need?

· What is Narveson’s reasoning for the claim that not everyone counts equally for us?

· What is Narveson’s view concerning giving to others as an act of charity?

3. Explain all the ways in which the views of Singer and Narveson conflict with each other.

4. Provide a thorough, well-developed analysis of what is correct and what is incorrect in Singer’s argument that addresses each of Singer’s points listed above.

5. Provide a thorough, well-developed analysis of what is correct and what is incorrect in Narveson’s argument that addresses each of Narveson’s points listed above.

6. In light of your analysis, then, who has the better argument: Singer or Narveson? What are reasons for your judgment? Is one of these arguments correct, or are they both incorrect? Explain your reasoning in a detailed, well-developed manner.

The essay does not need to follow the exact order of these points; these points are enumerated here to show what a complete and thorough discussion on this topic should include.

Essay Guidelines

Each essay needs an introductory paragraph. This paragraph briefly introduces your subject to the reader, and it ends with your thesis statement. The thesis is the point that you are trying to get across with your essay. The entire essay can be seen, in a sense, as support for your thesis; anything in the essay that does not help support your thesis is not relevant and should not be included in your essay. Also, the essay should end with a conclusion paragraph that reiterates your thesis, and summarizes what you’ve said in your paper to support your thesis. The conclusion paragraph should contain no new points.

Use your own words. When using research, quotes should be sparingly used. They are appropriate to accentuate a particular point, particularly if a writer’s words are themselves unique or particularly well-constructed, and they can be necessary as textual evidence to support your account. But do not rely on quotes to do the work of summarizing and explaining.

Remember that your essay is a composition. Pay attention to the presentation of points. Be sure that each paragraph logically follows from what precedes it. (And be sure that each paragraph has one clearly identifiable topic.) The essay should read like one organic whole, not like a series of parts.

Be careful not to assume unreasonable prior knowledge on the part of the reader of your essay.

All sources must be identified by a works cited page, and each time you refer to a source or rely upon ideas from a source, you must cite that use, including specific page numbers if applicable, in the text of the essay where you are using that source. If you use an outside source and do not do these two things, the paper will either not be counted as credit for the assignment, or it will receive a low grade. Furthermore, the paper may be seen as an example of plagiarism – using someone else’s work and passing it off as your own – and will receive a “0” and may result in further disciplinary actions. (You may use whatever style of citation you wish; the point is that you always give credit to your sources and that you give the reader the information necessary to review your sources should she or he desire to do so.)

Always remember to use sufficient detail in explaining points. Do not raise a point that needs explanation or discussion without subsequently explaining/discussing it.

Pay attention to grammar and spelling at all times.

Notes: The first 2 files is the reading that needs for the paper. The third one (Seech – Thesis Defense Paper) is the recommended reading from the instructor, so that you can follow.

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