overview of bilingualism

Response Task for Overview of Bilingual Education

Submit this on your student ePortfolio by Tuesday, November 10th, 9am.

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To post, use the ELN 101 module and make sure to publish it so that I can see it.

The format of your posting is entirely up to you. You can use this document as a fillable document and embed it on your ePortfolio as is; you can also add the pages with readings and videos that we go over; you can build the page from scratch with the resources and your posts embedded more smoothly. You are completely in charge of how your student ePortfolio looks to the viewer.

Like everything else in life, the way you communicate your thoughts is subject to assessment by the readers. Use technology to your advantage – spelling checks exists for a reason. View your ePortfolio posts in the published mode so that you can assess what you present to the world.

Grading: Response tasks will be assessed based on accuracy and completeness of responses and intellectual curiosity of reflections.

Note: Total points add up to 105%. This is because each lecture allows you to accumulate extra credit. I hope you take advantage of it.

Your Response Tasks

Response Task 1 20%

Based on the “No Child Left Monolingual” video, answer the following questions:

a. What was the approach to education of multilingual children in 1950s Brooklyn, NY? Why doesn’t Kim Potowski speak Lithuanian now?

b. According to Potowski, why is the United States a nation that “exhibits and promotes” monolingualism?

c. What is the myth about immigrants in the US with regard to English? What is the truth?

d. What does Potowski consider a “devastating language loss” that is happening to immigrant families in the US?

At 8:35, Kim Potowski introduces different educational options for immigrant children in the United States. They are summarized in the image below. Which educational option does Kim Potowski advocate for?

In the second half of her talk, Potowski mentions a number of concepts that you have already studied in this course—including the cognitive and social benefits of bilingualism. Name at least two of these concepts. What additional concepts do you hear her mentions?

Concept 1:

Concept 2:

Additional concepts you have noticed:

Response Task 2 5%

In your own words, explain how Garcia (2009) defines bilingual education. How does she say it differs from language education?

Response Task 3 30%

Apply critical thinking skills when completing these tasks.

A. Transitional Bilingual Education

· In the video clip, what surprised the journalists about the 5-year old entering the school system in Arizona? How is the home language of the child viewed in Arizona?

· Based on García’s (2009) chapter (p. 124-125), what are the most important characteristics of transitional bilingual education? Write one descriptive paragraph that could inform someone who has not read the chapter.

B. Maintenance Bilingual Education

· What do you think of the language abilities of the Canadian high schoolers from the video clip? Be sure to apply a few terms from Wei’s (2007) dimensions of bilinguals to these students.

· Based on García’s (2009) chapter (p. 125-127), what are the most important characteristics of maintenance bilingual education? Write one descriptive paragraph that could inform someone who has not read the chapter.

C. Enrichment Bilingual Education

· Based on the two video clips, what is the attitude towards different languages in the dual-language and CLIL programs? How are the home languages of children viewed?

· Based on García’s (2009) chapter (p. 129-130), what are the most important characteristics of enrichment bilingual education such as dual-language and CLIL? Write one descriptive paragraph that could inform someone who has not read the chapter.

Response Task 4 20%

Analyze the two slides below that come from Kim Potowski’s lecture ‘“No Child Left Monolingual” and assess the effectiveness of the types of bilingual education programs you learned about in this lecture. Remember, as Potowski indicated in her lecture, the biggest fear of the policy-makers and the public in the United States is that in bilingual programs, children do not learn English.

Answer the following questions by comparing the three educational options in terms of how well the children enrolled scored on reading in English:

1. For children who did not speak English when entering school, which program gave the best results at the end of 11th grade?

2. For children who spoke English at home, how did the comparison between state average and dual language program compare in grades 3-5?

Please note that the graphs below only compare US-based programs. What you see below is a comparison of the programs that you both learned about today, but that you might also be familiar with through your own (or your children’s) schooling here in NYC:

· English Only which refers to mainstream instruction you are probably familiar with from NYC public schools.

· Bilingual Education which refers to transitional bilingual education from García (2009) or ESL-type instruction you may be familiar with from NYC public schools.

· Two-way Immersion which refers to enrichment bilingual education or dual-language programs from (García, 2009) or the programs in NYC you may be familiar with.

Note, we do not have maintenance bilingual education or CLIL programs in the United States.

Slide 1 refers to children who did not speak English at home

Slide 2 refers to children who spoke English at home when entering school

Response Task 5 30%

A. Fact-Finding

Based on the information from the DOE website:

a. Who are the “multilingual learners,” as defined by the NYC DOE?

b. What are the options for NYC parents who raised their children bilingually from infancy and the children speak English and another language fluently?

c. What are the options for NYC parents who raised their children in English-speaking households but would like them to become bilingual through schooling?

B. Critical Thinking

Based on the information from the DOE website :

a. Connect the description of the programs given by the NYC DOE to the three general types of bilingual education you learned about from García (2009, Overview of Bilingual Education). What are the types of bilingual education that the programs below represent?

Dual Language is [ ] Bilingual Education
Transitional Bilingual Education is [ ] Bilingual Education
English as a New Language is [ ] Bilingual Education

b. What do you like and/or dislike about NYC Department of Education’s offering for multilingual learners?

c. What questions would you like to pose to the DOE, if you had a chance to speak to the current DOE Chancellor Richard Carranza? From what you’ve learned so far this semester, what do you think the DOE Chancellor Richard Carranza would benefit most from knowing about bilingualism? Briefly explain why.

Overview of Bilingual Education

In the previous weeks, you have learned about the difference in language acquisition process between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals (Wei, 2007). Both groups of bilinguals, when under the age of 16, are best captured by the term emergent bilinguals (García, 2009). Emergent bilinguals are learners who are in the developing stages of acquiring their native language (L1) and/or a second language (L2), and who have the ability to tap into both languages as resources.

The next logical questions we will grapple with are:

How do we school these emergent bilinguals?
What approaches have been used around the world and in the US?
What would the best approach be?

In this part of the course, we will begin to apply what we have learned about bilingualism thus far to the education of bilinguals. While we will use New York City as a learning lab to answer these questions, we must also seek answers outside of New York City. How is the education of bilinguals enacted elsewhere? What can we learn from these other approaches to apply here, in our city?

In New York City, children join the pre-K-12 system of public schools as monolinguals, as minimal bilinguals, and as functional multilinguals (Wei, 2007). Some NYC-born children enter the school at the age of 4 because we have free pre-K classes open to them (outside of NYC, schooling may start at 5). Some children speak English at home; some speak a language other than English at home. Some homes are bilingual; most are not. On the other end of the spectrum, there are school-age children who arrive in NYC as teenagers and enter the public-school system post puberty.

NYC educators have a variety of educational approaches available to them. To begin learning about these different options in education, listen to the TED talk “No Child Left Monolingual” by Kim Potowski, a researcher from Chicago, whose grandparents raised their children in Brooklyn, NY. Then, complete Response Task 1.

In the chapters assigned for today’s lecture (Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective, Ch. 1 and Ch. 6), the scholar and educator Ofelia García provides more detailed information on the educational options available to public schools in the United States and in New York City. Have the assigned pages ready and read them as you learn about the most important concepts. We will connect them to the programs presented to us by Kim Potowski in the “No Child Left Monolingual” video.

Bilingual Education: Definition

First, it is important to define bilingual education. Read pages 5-7 in Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective (Ch. 1 hyperlinked here). As you read, take notes on the differences between bilingual education and language education. Complete Response Task 2.

Types of Bilingual Education

Now that you have defined bilingual education and distinguished it from language education, you can review models of bilingual education that García explains in Chapter 6 (hyperlinked here).

She connects each of the frameworks and types of bilingual education to an orientation toward languages that students and their families speak at home. The differences in these orientations determine how the school administrators and educators view the home language of a student.

The view of the home language of the student is also related to the different types of children being educated, and to the position of power they hold (or not). Analyze the table below adapted from Table 6.5, page 132 in García (2009).
We will now consider (i) the types of children, (ii) the attitudes towards their home languages and bilingualism, and (iii) the types of bilingual education offered by schools in the United States and abroad.
[As a note of interest and as you will see below, many educators are drawn to calling their programs immersion. Because the term is unreliable, please pay attention to the labels in bold that define each type of bilingual education more precisely].

Transitional Bilingual Education

When a home language of a student is seen as a problem by the school and the society, the approach to educating the student falls under Transitional Bilingual Education.

This type of education is typically addressed to powerless, language-minority children. The type of bilingualism that results is subtractive => L1+L2-L1=L2 (remember Wei (2007)?), when the home language of the child is lost, as is the culture, resulting in monolingualism, monoliteracy, and monoculturalism.

Read García’s description of Transitional Bilingual Education on page 124. See an example of this attitude in the clip below that discusses Structured English Immersion in Arizona. Complete Response Task 3A.
Maintenance Bilingual Education

When a home language of a student is seen as a right (as in human rights) by the school and the society, the approach to educating the student falls under Maintenance Bilingual Education.

This type of education is typically addressed to empowered, language-minority but also to language-majority children. The type of bilingualism that results is additive => L1+L2=L1+L2) (remember Wei (2007)?), when the home language of the child is respected and maintained, as is the child’s culture, resulting in bilingualism, biliteracy, and, potentially, biculturalism.

Read García’s description of Maintenance Bilingual Education on pages 125-127. The immersion program described by García refers to the type of bilingual education practiced in Canada, our neighbor to the north. Watch the clip below from Canadian public high schools in Montreal that practice French Immersion. Complete Response Task 3B.
Enrichment Bilingual Education

When a home language of a student is seen as a resource (as in professional and personal resource) by the school and the society, the approach to educating the student falls under Enrichment Bilingual Education.
This type of education is appropriate for all students in the school system. The type of bilingualism that results is functional, with a dominance in the majority language, but no language loss of the home language or the heritage culture (L1+L2=L2+L1). In this approach, there is an understanding that the home language of the child needs to be developed in the same way that the majority language needs to be developed. Bilingualism, biliteracy, and biculturalism are prioritized.

Read García’s description of two examples of this type of education, dual-language and CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning), on pages 129-130.

Dual-language programs described by García are the same as Chicago’s’ two-way immersiondescribed by Kim Potowski in the “No Child Left Monolingual” video. Watch the clip from the School District of Waukesha, Wisconsin, to get some familiarity with the dual-language approach.

CLIL programs can be most often found in Europe. The clip on CLIL is from the Basque Country, Spain. Complete Response Task 3C.
Which Programs Work Best?

In several of the clips you watched in this lecture, educators and researchers provided some information on how effective these programs are. To appreciate the real effectiveness of each program, however, we have to look at some quantitative (or numerical) data that compares how well the children enrolled in each program type do. To accomplish this, complete Response Task 4.

Public Education for Multilinguals in NYC

According to the 2018-19 Department of Education (DOE) demographic report, over 42% of New York City students communicated in a language other than English at home.

There are opportunities for becoming bilingual in the NYC public school system and you will begin understanding what is happening in our city by exploring the home page of the NYC Department of Education (DOE): https://www.schools.nyc.gov/. Specifically, focus on the tab Learning and the pull-down tab Multilingual Learners: https://www.schools.nyc.gov/learning/multilingual-learners.

Notice all the section subheadings under Multilingual Learners. They indicate the specific population(s) of multilingual learners that the NYC Department of Education intends to serve:

Annual Parent Teacher Meetings for… English Language Learners
Bill of Rights for Parents of… English Language Learners
College-Career Readiness for… English Language Learners
Community Organizations that Help… English Language Learners
Helpful Links for Families of …. English Language Learners
Multilingual Learners Academy:
Summer in the City’s Summer Academy
Offers a number of enriching programs
for students who are… English Language Learners
Programs for … English Language Learners
Tests for … English Language Learners

Reflect on the NYC DOE ‘educational menu’ as you complete Response Task 5A.

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