Please craft an essay in which you first explain Stein’s take on the issues related to how to bring about racial equality in the heavy industry workplace

Please craft an essay in which you first explain Stein’s take on the issues related to how to bring about racial equality in the heavy industry workplace (here, the steel industry) how they were debated and decided (in various ways at various times) in the 1960s and 1970s, with a focus on what was decided at the Bethlehem Steel plants at Lackawanna, New York and Sparrow’s Point, Maryland, and at US Steel’s TCI/Fairfield plant at Birmingham, Alabama, as well as the consent decrees of the 1970s. (You will want to briefly explain the issue of prospective versus retrospective relief, the anonymous 1967 Harvard Law Review note and its “rightful place” doctrine, the Quarles v. Phillip Morris Tobacco and Crown Zellerbach Paper Company cases (pp.114-119) as well, as they form necessary background to the these disputes.) Explain the differing issues and opinions about justice that come up in this history. Discuss how the loss of jobs in the steel industry impacted this debate, and what the outcomes were for who was helped and for public opinion, according to Stein.

Then, with that material (Stein’s history) loaded up in your brain, sit back and think about the evidence we’ve looked at in this course about people’s racial policy attitudes (and what they are, which you may disagree about) and how those racial policy attitudes may or may not tie to people’s party ID and their choices about which party’s candidates to vote for.

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Think of that material in terms of what periods of public opinion it covers. Earliest is Schickler (covering 1932 to 1965), then Carmines and Stimson (covering 1945-1980, but with a focus on 1964-1980), then Abramowitz’ 1994 paper (covering some 1980; lots of 1988) and Abramowitz and Saunders’ 1998 paper (covering what they see as the big changes from 1978 to 1994), then Abramowitz’ 2018 book chapters (focusing on 2016 but covering changes from the 1980s to 2016) and the Schaffer, MacWilliams and Nteta 2018 paper (which focuses on 2016 but also covers changes from 2012 to 2016). Note also changes in white attitudes on each of the four racial resentment questions from 1988 to 2016 in the one-page handout racialResentmentScaleWhiteRDaveragesOverTime.pdf Then there are Carney and Enos 2017, and Kam and Burge 2019, both digging deeper into the racial resentment scale, trying to figure out what it really picks up, and maybe from whom it picks up what, on average. You are now very familiar with all of that material, and have different opinions about how much various pieces of it disagree with others; no doubt my views will change as I read your Exam2 takes on it. Think about what you have decided about those questions in the paragraph above this one, and for what time periods.

How does historical materialism make a difference to your thinking about the topics of racial attitudes and public opinion that we have studied in this course? A historical materialist approach argues that to understand public opinion, we have to understand the societal developments that produce it, particularly those developments that are intimately connected to people’s material interests, such as the world of production and employment for money. What does this look at the heavy industry aspect of the material context of the development of public opinion add to (or take away from) your understanding of public opinion about racial policy attitudes and their relationship to party ID and party voting? Weigh in with your own views on the opinions about justice and injustice that these debates and outcomes in the steel industry raise, and how they might tie to or drive party ID or voting. Which of your opinions based on the public opinion research does this history make stronger? Which of them does it call into question? Does it affect your thinking about public opinion in the different periods in different ways? Does it bring to mind avenues for further study? What can it add to the investigations of our public opinion scholars?

we only read chapters 4-7 of Stein’s Running Steel and an excerpt from Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, although on 1112, the first day of the section, I also went over some necessary background material on pages 44-58 of Chapter 3 about the two types of seniority and the 1962 United Steelworkers of America (USWA) contract, with a focus on US Steel at TCI/Fairfield/Birmingham (all names for the US Steel mill at Birmingham, AL).

read the part of chapter 3 starting on p. 43 with “The first goal of the CIO unions” to p. 58; that’s the Ch. 3 stuff

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