Protein Review

Protein Review

Protein is large molecules with more than one amino acid long chain. Protein is essential for the body cells, organs, and tissue to function normally, organizing biological methods, transportation, and defending the body. Enzymes, hormones, and other chemicals that regulate body functions are what makeup protein. The reason for this research is to examine the role, mutation, and formation of protein.

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The Steps to Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis is a process that happens inside of cells leading to the formation of protein. There are two steps to protein synthesis being the transcription and translation. The first step is transcription, which uses DNA in the nucleus to create a message molecule (mRNA). DNA is used in transcription because it safely and stably stores genetic information in the cells’ nucleus as a template strand of DNA called a noncoding strand. The transcription stage has three phases initiation, elongation, and termination. When an enzyme chain to a gene region is called a promoter, this happens in the initiation phase. Elongation is the second phase; it adds a nucleotide to the component. When the component detaches itself from DNA, it is called termination.

The Amino acid sequence unique structure.

There are twenty chains of amino acids, and the order of their sequence determines the structure and type of protein folding. Amino acids can be proline, valine, or Serine held together with peptide bonds. The first sequence, called primary structure proteins, occurs where genes determine the number of amino acids. All amino acids must have a carboxyl group, amino group, an R-group. The secondary structure is a bond among stretches of a polypeptide chain and αlpha-helix and βeta-pleated sheet structures. Because of the specific hydrogen bonds, the amino acids’ arrangement determines the shape of the proteins. Tertiary proteins emerge from the R-group component of the amino acid. It varies from amino acid to another, which is hydrophilic and has little to no polarity in some regions. Ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, among others, determines the folding in the tertiary structure. In quaternary proteins, a chain of one or more polypeptide amino acids interacting in the formation.

Influenced Protein Functions

Function and diverse roles appear from different parts of protein structure. For example, collagen protein made up of three polypeptide chains can bind the muscles on the skin to the bones. All the chains work as one unit in a coordinated way. Neutralizers are the type of proteins that adhere to pathogens and operate as a defensive mechanism. Lactase, which acts to crush glucose into monosaccharides, has one polypeptide structure, which works freely. Hemoglobin proteins located in the red blood cells have four polypeptide chains connected to develop the intake of oxygen in the body. The complexity is necessary to obtain proper function.

The Genetic Impact

The genetic changes, especially within the nucleic acid produced in RNA and DNA, is called gene mutation. Mutation can be harmful, beneficial, or neutral in their progress. Gene mutations begin from DNA that makes genes liable for protein formation. If a gene mutates, an amino acid can produce a protein in a structure that affects an organism’s function. Deletion and insertion of genes can influence amino acids tasked with protein formation. During the introductory stage of transcription in the DNA, amino acid change can alter the protein’s function.

Mutation Disease

Sickle cell is a disease mutation from hemoglobin beta gene found on chromosome 11. Hemoglobin is responsible for getting oxygen from the lung to other parts of the body. Red blood cells with healthy hemoglobin-A are smooth and round and glide in blood vessels. This disease is a simple substitution mutation that produces Sickle-cell anemia. In the transformation, a single nucleotide is replaced in the DNA portion, which codes to a hemoglobin unit. However, the functions obtained transform sickle cell anemia anywhere the gene code for hemoglobin is mutated, affecting its regular operation. Therefore, the protein’s shape gets involved, making it hard to provide oxygen and manage anemia. As a result, proteins are primary components in the human body that help form the structure and manage different body functions. The synthesis of proteins takes place within the stages of transcription and translation. The formation of the proteins determines their position. Unfortunately, mutations occur in some cases that affect the regular operation of the body. If this happens, it leads to diseases like sickle cell.

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